13.07.2009

Nomadic basis in globalization environment

Contur. kz

To reach the fountain, the one have to swim against the flow NN

To understand multiple processes of modern Kazakhstan, it is necessary to recall its past. The past of the land, given all its limitations, is nomadic type of production in the first place and everything follows, from perception archetypes of the environment to cuisine. Descendants of nomads, living in cities and using Internet, carry stormy history on both consciousness level and genetic code. 2009 07 13 step worriorsThe feature of nomadic culture researches is polarization of values concerning its role in global history. Nomads as destroyers of civilizations and nomads as intermediaries between civilizations thesis’s are poles of scientific assessments of this global phenomena. When eggheads saying that, from one side Nomads doesn’t give anything to worldwide civilization, except the fact of their existence and trousers, and, from the other, in spite of relative multiplicity, the role of nomads in Eurasia history were vast and multifaceted, the field of searching the truth becomes too big. Concerning economical aspects of nomadism, Anatoly Khazanov, anthropologist from Wisconsin university, underlines that nomadism until modern age the was most effective kind of production economy in arid regions, prevailing even the irrigated cropping in terms of labour-force balance and delivery. Another one of his theses says that Nomadism is one of main agents of cultural mixture. Preparatory to caravan defeat by caravels, nomadic transit was major. Chinese mirrors were found in Eastern Europe, and makes of Persian artisans – in Pazaryk burial mounds in Altay Mountains. Nomads have made the world wide opened. Goods, technologies, cultural plants moved to vast distances. For example, thanks to nomads, Chinese artillery on the Hulagu-Khan’s army has acquainted Europeans with gunpowder. The nomads themselves didn’t create global religions, but very proactively promoted the expansion of Christian culture, Buddhism and Islam especially. They made revolution in military science at all, creating the cavalry and charger archery in 1 century BC. Anatoly Khazanov points out three main reasons why nomads stayed as the sabre for two millenniums. First of all, undeveloped division of labour and social stratification resulted that most of the men were warriors at the same time. Along with this, middle warrior could handle any weapon, was armed and could create at least part of his weaponry himself. The second factor is that nomadism promotes military education itself. And the third thing is that nomads are not to be wanting horses for their army, whereas agricultural society’s abilities to keep horses were restricted. If we take political aspect to consider, then not less than a half of the nations in Eurasia were created by nomads or with their proactive influence, except Western Europe and South-East Asia. The same story is with destruction and end of nations. It is strange, that it is still renouncing on present level of knowledge, — professor Khazanov noticing. Slavoy Shinkevich, Doctor of Historical Science from Archeology and Ethnography Institute of Polish Academy of Science, focusing attention on cultural issues. In this view, the nomads included themselves into global culture. Neighboring with nomads always pushed domiciled nations to doubt in trueness of ethnocentrism, — he underlines. Only isolated cultures have no abilities to affect their environment. In this case, nomads are extremely opened, because of their internal and external communications, talents of crossing borders in the widest sense, and habits to expand and enforce communications, were developed. Division on friendly and alien were not so hard between nomads, as it is in settled nations. Age-long wrench of history of domiciled and nomadic nation’s relations is treated by Dr. Shinkevich as response reaction of settled societies on nomadic challenge. Prof. Vensan Furgno of French Highest School of Social Research, paying attention to fact that nomads have to master their complexes nowadays, which were developed under the pressure of domiciled states. Modern science has learned to go ahead from Europe-centrism, but historian underlined presence of anti-nomadic traditions in domiciled states of Asia. They are too the subject of criticism, which can be approached by position of re-interpretation. Anatoly Khazanov adding to his colleague, reminding that “the backwardness of many domiciled states of Eastern Europe, on Near and Middle East and on the Far East is commonly explained by nomadic conquests”. Nikolay Kradin from Far East Division of Russian Academy of Science, marks that fast (from historical point of view) expansion of chariots, iron works, axial time (common history of mankind), stirrups, heavy cavalry and artillery is vastly and evidently depend on role of nomads. Any system has periods of growth and fall. So, increase of population leads to increase of load on resources and growth of prices. Elite of nation is also grows. Reach people always trying to avoid taxes, and if they are successful, pressure on middle class is increasing, because poor people can’t pay taxes by objective reasons. And then the crisis comes. Albeit Dr. Kradin said that coincidence in history disproves all the tendencies, all the logic, even so he specializes on different models and statistics. By virtue that nomadic elite has tendency for polygamy, this feature of it, along with allotment system (every son of ruler gets piece of land) leaded to dynasty existence for only 3 to 4 generations. Mathematically, this looks in following scheme. If khan has 100 per cent of resources, then his son – only 20, if it were only five sons, usually a lot more. Grandson of dynasty founder is rich only with 4 per cent, and his son – only 0.8 per cent. Grand-grandson never reach throne. When in 16th century descendants of Genghis Khan were expelled out of China to Mongolia, then many genghisids had only few heads of cattle, along with high ambitions. Resource base couldn’t support them. As the result, civil war has started, and most of official descendants of Shocker of Universe have died in the process. As the result of unbelievable conquests, Mongols united all complex of land and sea trade ways under their power, actually effected medieval globalization. But just by virtue of established unity the plague which appeared in China by 1331, reached Europe by 1348, and then followed by keen decrease of population and disintegration of first industrial system. Prof. Juliy Hudyakov researches the role of Turkic nomads in expansion of cultural achievements between nations of Siberia forest areas in middle ages. In force of geographical factors, there were no alternative ways to taiga hunters in that historical age to get coloured metals and iron, modern weaponry and methods to use it, crockery, horse harnesses and etc., but from or through nomads. The main subject of borrowing was weapons. Bows, for example, are hugely differs from each other by firing rates, comfort, some can be used to shoot from saddle, and some are not. In truth, by force of peripheral disposition of the region, expansion of innovations was not at once replaced former borrowings within Samo and Ugor tribes. When in 9th century Kirgiz make war to Uigurs for decades, Kirgiz side had to mobilize all available human resources to win. They also engaged taiga hunters, rearming them with modern weaponry. Vadim Trepavlov of Institute of Russian history, Russian Academy of Science, raising the issue of Mongolian Yoke. The Yoke, in understanding of Russian ideology creators, never existed. Russia was part of Golden Horde, but with different status comparing to nomad camps, — considering Dr. Trepavlov. In all, diversity and unequal status of complex territories was attributes of Golden Horde. Khan labels and tribute in case of Russian dukedoms wasn’t humiliating. Labels were part of investiture of Mongols, but not the form of suppression, — historian underlines. Concerning tribute, city of Haji-Tarkhan, for example, paid 60 thousand altyns in tribute, though was situated on Ulus domain territory. Tribute is more a state tax, — defines Vadim Trepavlov. One of ideas за Dr. Trepavlov is that Russia initially developed as European kingdom. And then was Mongolian conquest and tributary. Rus, however, inherited Golden Horde and then most of Mongolian heritage. That’s how the ways of history made continental power out of European kingdom. After disintegration of Soviet Union Kazakhstan also inherited its part of various Genghis Khan’s heritage. If we judge by results of present day, wealthy heritage nowhere near ran out.

7 comments

  1. Anonymous

    И чо?

  2. Anonymous

    Что то во всем этом есть

  3. Написать пост на пол страницы время есть, а ответить нет? Нормально

  4. Однако, афтар грамотно накреативил!

  5. решил помочь и разослал пост в соц. Закладки. Надеюсь поднимется популярность

  6. блин, почему так мало хороших блогов осталось? этот вне конкуренции

  7. Извините за офф-топик, не подскажете, где можно такой же симпатичный шаблон для блога взять?